Publication Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 12(10): 425 (1909).
Basionyme Cactus hystrix Haworth
"THE GENUS CEREUS
AND ITS ALLIES IN NORTH AMERICA.
Salm-Dyck, Obs. Bot. 7. 1822.Cereus hystrix
Salm-Dyck; DC. Prod. 3:
Distribution: Jamaica; Haiti; Cuba.
Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10: f. 20
Des mêmes auteurs: The Cactaceae
2: 86-87, fig. 126-128 (1920):
"2. Lemaireocereus hystrix
(Haworth) Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12:
425. 1909.Cactus hystrix
Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 73. 1819.Cereus hystrix
Salm-Dyck, Observ. Bot. 3:
7. 1822.Echinocactus hystrix
Haworth, Phil. Mag. 7:
Plant often 8 to 12 meters high and then with 10 to 50 erect branches; trunk short, often indefinite, sometimes 3 dm. in diameter; branches 7 to 10 cm. in diameter, with 9 or 10, rarely 12, ribs separated by V-shaped intervals; spines gray with brown tips, acicular, the radials about 10; central spines usually 3, one often longer than the others, often 4 cm. long; flower, including the ovary, 8 to 9 cm. long; tube 5 cm. long, broadly obconic, 3 cm. broad at mouth, spineless, purplish to dark green, bearing a few short broad scales; inner perianth-segments white, spreading or recurved; stamens numerous, erect, white; style white, slender, club-shaped; ovary tuberculate, spineless, bearing small ovate scales; fruit
5 to 6 cm. long, longer than broad, scarlet, covered with clusters of deciduous spines, when mature breaking open and exposing the dark red pulp.Type locality:
Dry parts of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and the Porto Rican islands Desecheo and Cayo Muertos.
On the outskirts of Kingston, Jamaica, the stout branches are planted close together, forming a fence or an almost impenetrable hedge about fields, especially along the roadsides.
The flower of this species open at about 7 o'clock in the evening in Jamaica. The style is exserted from the tip of the bud several days before the flower opens, but it seems to be withdrawn before the flower is ready to expand. The flower-tube cuts off from the ovary as is done in Cereus
, except that the style comes off with the perianth. Numerous wasps visit the flowers to gather the nectar
which oozes from the back of the scales on the flower-tube.
This plant is called Spanish dildos in Jamaica. On hillsides at the United States Naval Station
, Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, this cactus occurs in great abundance, forming large colonies, individual plants differing much in the length of their spines, which in some are all less than 1 cm. long.Illustrations:
Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10:
f.20, as Cereus hystrix
; Gard. Chron. II 10:
185. f.37; Möllers Deutsche Gart. Zeit. 18:
342, as Cereus swartzii
Figure 126 is from a photograph taken by Marshall A. Howe near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, in 1909; figure 127 shows a flower collected by William Harris in Jamaica and figure 128 a fruit
from the same source.
Here is probably to be referred Descourtilz's plate 419 (Fl. Med. Antill., vol. 6), which he supposed to be Cactus fimbriatus
Lamarck. This plate seems to be based largely on Burmann's plate of Plumier 195, f.2. This latter plate was made the type of Haworth's Cereus grandispinus
(Phil. Mag. 7:
113. 1930; Pilocereus grandispinus
Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862:
avec complément dans l'Appendix de The Cactaceae 2: 225 (1920):
(See page 86, ante.)Cereus olivaceus
, Lemaire, Rev. Hort. IV.8:
The plant upon which Cereus olivaceus
was based came from Santo Domingo.
et dans l'Appendix de The Cactaceae 4: 273 (1923):
"On page 86, vol.II, under Lemaireocereus hystrix
, add the synonym: Cactus americanus
Vitman, Summa. Pl. 3:
Insert: Cactus americanus
is based on Bradley
's illustration (Hist. Succ. Pl. 12) which De Candolle referred to Cereus eburneus
, but as the plant came from the West Indies it is perhaps better referred to Lemaireocereus hystrix
Also insert: We have recently obtained from N. E. Brown a photograph of Haworth's Cereus hystrix
, with the date, "Oct. 24. 1824." "
: en l'honneur du botaniste français Charles Lemaire
(1800-1871), cierge de Lemaire.hystrix
: du latin hystrix
, porc-épic, en référence aux épines.
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Fiche créée le 13/12/2004, mise à jour le 04/01/2005.